By F. G. Bell
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Additional info for Fundamentals of Engineering Geology
Paper 127. CLOOS, H. (1923). Das Batholithenproblem, Fortschr. Geologie und Palaeontologie, HT, 1. C L O U G H , C. , M A U F E , H. B. & BAILEY, Ε. B. (1909). 'The cauldron subsidence of Glencoe', Q. J. Geol. Soc, 65, 611-78. COOK, E. F. (1966). Tufflavas and Ignimbrites, Elsevier, N e w York. D A L Y , R. A. (1933). Igneous Rocks and the Depth of the Earth, McGraw-Hill, N e w York. E A T O N , J. P. & M U R A T O , K. J. (1960). 'How volcanoes grow', Science, 132, 925-38. F E N N E R , C. N .
Tholeiite consists essentially of pyroxene and basic plagioclase. The pyroxenes occur both as phenocrysts and in the groundmass of these rocks, the former are represented by augite, subcalcic augite and occasionally hypersthene, whilst augite, subcalcic augite and pigeonite are found in the matrix. Tholeiite may contain up to 10% of quartz, which usually occurs as an interstitial mineral in the groundmass, where it is occasionally associated with orthoclase. Tridymite may be found in the matrix.
Diorite has been defined as an intermediate plutonic, granular rock composed of plagioclase and hornblende, although at times the latter may be partially or completely replaced by biotite and/or pyroxene. Plagioclase, in the form of oligoclase and andesine, is the dominant feldspar. If orthoclase is present it acts only as an accessory mineral. Syenites, monzonites and diorites are noncrystalline, usually equigranular rocks, in which the constituent crystals are subhedral and anhedral. Porphyritic types are not c o m m o n but when they d o occur the phenocrysts are usually feldspar.