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By Aleksander Gella

Publication through Gella, Aleksander

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Extra info for Development of class structure in eastern Europe: Poland & her southern neighbors

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The result of their collaboration was in many senses the greatest threat for all of Europe. This was well understood by Karl Marx who, in strongest words, condemned both Prussian and Russian imperialisms. In 1863, during the uprising in Poland, he wrote: "The fall of Poland is the cradle of Prussia, and the advancement of Russia is Prussia's law of development. "7 Page 8 An understanding of the present development of socialist states in eastern Europe cannot be gained without at least general historical information concerning both the internal history of East-European countries as well as their centuries-long troubles with those two stronger neighbors.

In spite of these conditions, the cases of upward mobility of Jews into the nobles' estate were known for centuries; Page 12 however, they happened not through the process of assimilation, but by the act of a monarch's grace, or more often (during the sixteenth century) by acts of conversion that allowed baptized Jews to become members of the nobility. However, to start a noble life, they had to buy estates and accept the military duties and life style of a nobleman. " And, if the Jews would have been willing to take this opportunity, then as, Wawrzyniec Surowiecki, one of the greatest sympathizers and defender of the Jewish cause, wrote in 1811.

Czechs were decisively anti-German and pro-Russian. Hungarians, though politically dominated by Austrians, were pro-German. Romanians who had enough reason to fear and hate Russians were Francophiles and pro-German. Additionally, the region of Transsylvania was a land of a lasting conflict between Romanians and Hungarians. The Poles had three enemies: Russians, Germans and Austrians. 1 Today, the sharing of similar stratification systems can significantly contribute to a breakdown of these stereotypes.

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