By Mary Keogan, Eleanor M. Wallace, Paula O'Leary
This updated immunology textbook offers a transparent and straightforward creation to medical and laboratory immunology for health and wellbeing execs in education or in perform. It covers: crucial simple immunology medical immunology laboratory investigations of immunological problems remedies utilized in immunological problems. targeting scientific difficulties visible in perform and together with self-assessment questions and case histories to assist studying and knowing, this can be a useful source for all clinical scholars, nurses, nutritionists, pharmacists and physiotherapists.
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Additional info for Concise Clinical Immunology for Health Professionals
Antibodies target pathogens and their toxic products for disposal by phagocytes. ◆ ◆ ◆ Antibodies bind and neutralise bacterial toxins. Antibodies opsonise bacteria, facilitating their ingestion and destruction by macrophages or neutrophils. Antibodies activate complement, which can lyse bacteria or opsonise microbes. Macrophages become more effective at killing organisms after interaction with helper T cells. 18 Innate Immune Responses I Innate Immune Responses II – The Complement System Inflammation How Does the Immune System See Antigen?
The innate immune response is capable of mounting a rapid response to an invading microbe and frequently augments the adaptive immune response. Components of the innate immune response include: ◆ Cells — Phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) — Degranulating cells (mast cells and eosinophils) — NK cells ◆ Proteins — Complement — Natural opsonins (Mannan binding lectin, MBL; C reactive protein, CRP) — Acute phase reactants ◆ Chemical messengers — Cytokines — Interferons (IFNs) This section will focus on phagocytosis and natural opsonins, which play a role in the innate immune response to bacteria, and NK cells and IFNs, which are the principle innate defences against viral pathogens.
Monocytes and macrophages Monocytes circulate in the blood, migrate into tissues and differentiate into macrophages. Macrophages are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (previously known as the reticuloendothelial system) and are distributed widely in body tissues. Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity and also present antigen to T cells. 1 Origin of blood cells. Bone marrow Haematopoietic stem cell Megakaryocyte/ erythrocyte progenitor Common myeloid progenitor Common Iymphoid progenitor Granulocyte/macrophage progenitor Megakaryocyte Erythroblast Blood B T Neutrophil Basophil Eosinophil Platelets Erythrocyte B cell T cell NK Monocyte Natural killer cell Precursor Immature dendritic cell Tissue T Plasma cell Activated T cell Macrophage Mast cell Immature dendritic cell Dendritic cell Dendritic cells Dendritic cells are professional APCs, which migrate from blood into tissues.