By Anthony Hassitt and Anthony Ralston (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Computer Programming and Computer Systems
1 ■ What is an I/O channel ? Why do all large machines use channels ? 5, illustrating the overlap of computing and I/O in the following Fortran program. C 1 PROGRAM TO COPY 100 RECORDS DIMENSION L(50) DO 1 1 = 1,100 READ (8) L WRITE (10) L 2 ■ What is the difference between a compiler and an assembler? What is the difference between a machine language instruction, a symbolic instruction and a compiler statement? Could an assembler have been written on the Eniac computer? The Edsac had a simple assembler.
Thus, —99 would be 100000000000000000000000000001100011 The numbers in the memory are actually represented in binary; however, in 2 · 3 BINARY NOTATION 45 describing these numbers it is more convenient to use octal notation. The transformation from octal to binary is so simple that the octal description does not obscure any essential facts. The representation of the decimal numbers 99 and — 99 in the memory can be written 000000000143 and 400000000143 in octal. The largest number that can be represented in one location is 377777777777 octal or 011111111111111111111111111111111111 which is 2 34 + 233 + 2 32 + ...
IBJOB has two sets of tables that define the correspondence between the Fortran unit number and the physical unit. In the first table, the standard units receive a standard name. The name, SYSINl denotes the standard system input tape. SYSPPl denotes the standard punch tape; SYSUT1 denotes a utility tape: this tape can be used for any purpose. The first IBJOB table might contain the following information: Fortran unit 1 equals SYSUT1 ; it is to be used for binary information and the maximum size of any records is 256 words.