By Richard Leach (auth.), Richard Leach (eds.)
The functionality of an element half could be profoundly laid low with its floor topography. there are various examples in nature of surfaces that experience a well-controlled topography to impact their functionality. Examples contain the hydrophobic impression of the lotus leaf, the aid of fluid drag because of the riblet constitution of shark dermis, the directional adhesion of the gecko foot and the angular sensitivity of the multi-faceted fly eye. floor structuring is usually getting used largely in glossy production. during this manner many houses could be altered, for instance optical, tribological, organic and fluidic. formerly, unmarried line (profile) measurements have been sufficient to regulate manufacture of surfaces, yet because the have to keep an eye on the performance of surfaces raises, there's a turning out to be want for third-dimensional (areal) dimension and characterisation suggestions. as a result there was massive examine, improvement and standardisation of areal recommendations. This ebook will current the areal framework that's being followed through the overseas neighborhood. while prior books have targeting the dimension points, this publication concentrates at the characterisation ideas, i.e. the best way to interpret the dimension information to offer the suitable (functional) info for a given job. the 1st a part of the ebook provides the characterisation equipment and the second one half case stories that spotlight using areal tools in a large diversity of topic parts - from motor vehicle manufacture to archaeology.
Introduction to floor Topography
The Areal box Parameters
The Areal characteristic Parameters
Areal Filtering Methods
Areal shape Removal
Areal Fractal Methods
Choosing the proper Parameter
Characterisation of person Areal Features
Multi-Scale Signature of floor Topography
Correlation of Areal floor Texture Parameters to sunlight phone Efficiency
Characterisation of Cylinder Liner Honing Textures for construction Control
Characterisation of the Mechanical Bond power for Copper on Glass Plating Applications
Inspection of Laser established Cams and Conrods
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Additional info for Characterisation of Areal Surface Texture
A dale usually has several saddle points along its surrounding ridge line (see Fig. 10). There is a special relationship between the pit and the lowest of these saddle points (and symmetrically, for a hill, between its peak and the highest saddle point on its course line). When virtual water overflows out of the dale, the water will escape into an adjacent dale at the lowest saddle. Fig. 9 The motif height hm is defined between the pit (1) and the lowest saddle point (2) which corresponds to the point where the dale overflows when filled up with virtual water (3) 52 F.
Feature parameters calculated in this way are more stable and robust than the ISO 12085 parameters, hence 2D watershed segmentation is a good candidate for replacing the methods in ISO 12085 (Blateyron and Adam 2004). Fig. 8 Motifs detected on a surface that is an imprint of human skin. 2 Watershed Segmentation The process of watershed segmentation starts from the lowest point of the surface. Virtual water is poured over the whole surface from above, so that the dale around the point is flooded progressively.
1 Void Volume, Vv The void volume or Vv(mr) parameter is the void volume calculated for a material ratio mr. This parameter is calculated by integrating the volume enclosed above the surface and below a horizontal cutting plane set at a height h = Smc(mr). This can be expressed by the following Z 100% ½Smcðmr Þ À SmcðqÞdq ð2:11Þ VvðmrÞ ¼ k mr where k is a factor to convert the volume into the required unit, either [lm3], [lm3/ mm2] or [ml/m2]. Void volume can be represented on the Abbott-Firestone curve as shown in Fig.