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By Rebecca Jean Emigh, Dylan Riley, Patricia Ahmed

Alterations in Censuses from Imperialist to Welfare States , the second one of 2 volumes, makes use of historic and comparative the way to learn censuses or census-like info within the uk, the U.S., and Italy, beginning in England over one-thousand years in the past.

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He concluded that this showed that the sanitary reforms of the period had been useless (Szreter 1996:90). Letheby also argued that public health measures might simply be preserving weak biological specimens, thereby degrading the quality of the population (Szreter 1996:94). However, these pressures initially failed to shift the census away from its public health focus (Higgs 2004b:84; Hilts 1970:143, 146). From the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the eugenics lobby became increasingly organized.

Thus, the mid-nineteenth-century UK censuses were relatively insulated from Parliament but tightly linked to expert opinion and expert lobbies. The censuses conducted by the GRO collected information in registration districts that were the old Poor Law districts; many of the local registrars were Poor Law officers (Desrosières 1998:167; Higgs 1996:421; 2004a:74; UK Census Office 1873:xxxi; 1883:2). Throughout this period, the machinery to conduct a census had four main levels: the central GRO office in London, several hundred superintendent registrars, a few thousand registrars, and tens of thousands of enumerators at the local level (UK Census Office 1873:x).

The 1891 census separated occupation from employment status in the census form for the first time. The form included three columns after the occupation question: “employer,” “employed,” and 42 CHANGES IN CENSUSES “neither employer nor employed but working on own account” (UK Census Office 1893:138). The 1901 census changed the employment status question slightly. The first column asked respondents to indicate occupation and the second asked whether they were an employer, a worker, or an “own account” worker (UK Census Office 1904:321).

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