Download Cell Fusions: Regulation and Control by Lars-Inge Larsson (auth.), Lars-Inge Larsson (eds.) PDF

By Lars-Inge Larsson (auth.), Lars-Inge Larsson (eds.)

Cell fusions are very important to fertilization, placentation, improvement of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defence method. also, mobile fusions perform tissue fix and should be very important to melanoma improvement, development and treatment. loads of elements keep watch over phone fusions, together with receptors and ligands, membrane area organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins that carry membranes shut jointly. within the current quantity, we interrogate what mechanisms which may be very important to mobile fusions in mammals and what mechanisms which may be shared with decrease organisms and viruses. also, the significance of mobile fusions to the pathogenesis in addition to therapy of illnesses is addressed.

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2001). HERV-K related virus-like particle have been observed in germ-cell tumours (Bieda et al. 2001, Boller et al. 1983, Kurth et al. 1983), and while the HERV-K113 locus was shown to be capable of producing intact particles of retroviral morphology in cell lines derived from human germ-cell tumours (Boller et al. 2008), they were not found to be infectious. Nevertheless, trans-complementation and recombination of human HERV-K loci can generate functional and infectious HERV-K virus particles, indicating that human cells still have the potential to produce infectious retrovirus particles (Dewannieux et al.

Placenta 26:556–562 Mallet F, Bouton O, Prudhomme S et al (2004) The endogenous retroviral locus ERVWE1 is a bona fide gene involved in hominoid placental physiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:1731–1736 Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S et al (2003) The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a receptor for HTLV. Cell 115:449–459 Mangeney M, Renard M, Schlecht-Louf G et al (2007) Placental syncytins: genetic disjunction between the fusogenic and immunosuppressive activity of retroviral envelope proteins.

2003). GLUT1 expression is not limited to T-lymphocytes, which are the primary target for adult T-cell leukemia, and it is likely that HTLV-1 may also infect other cells in vivo. HTLV-1 is an efficient inducer of syncytia in cultured cells (Paré et al. 2005) in a process that takes place at neutral pH and requires the viral envelope protein and the receptor. Additional cell– cell interactions may facilitate fusion by HTLV-1. It has been found that the dendritic cell-specific lectin DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin) will facilitate fusion with HTLV-1 infected T-cells as a result of interaction of this 2 Retroviruses and Cell Fusions: Overview 25 lectin with ICAM molecules on the T-cells (Ceccaldi et al.

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