By N. Ribas-Mateos
Border Shifts develops a extra advanced and multifaceted knowing of worldwide borders, analysing inner and exterior ecu borders from the Mediterranean quarter to the US-Mexico border, and exploring more than a few concerns together with securitization, abnormal migration, race, gender and human trafficking.
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Additional resources for Border Shifts: New Mobilities in Europe and Beyond
Development of the welfare mix seems to be at the centre of the restructuring of social policy in relation to immigration and to respond to the informal welfare needs of immigrants. Firstly, together with the ‘clientelist’ (patronage) or ‘rudimentary’ typology of the welfare state and the typology of ‘new immigration countries’, we can also add to this model of countries the term ‘late developers’ of European capitalism (Mingione 1995). This model can be deﬁned by obsolete economic structures (except in some regions), a modernization from rural to urban service-based economic and social structure, a gender asymmetry by sector employment changes and the important role played by a dynamic informal sector.
Secondly, the common elements to the model refer to labour market insertion; however, distinctions could be also observed on particular features existing on the informal market in each of the ﬁeldwork sites. Nevertheless, in general terms, the labour market was highly segmented, and has been developed within the context of a dominant informal sector, as can be seen from the survival strategies of Neapolitan families. The following are the principal common elements of the labour market: (i) explicit communalities on the labour market; (ii) the importance of the construction sector for the local labour market, particularly in the case of Lisbon; (iii) the relevance of the feminization and internationalization of domestic service in major Southern European cities; (iv) and a strong gender segmentation that inﬂuences demand in the more developed service economies, such as those found in Turin, Barcelona and Athens.
Globalization was ﬁrstly conceived as the freedom of foreign investments. This was empirically translated into free trade in relation to textile commodities. I ended up considering the manufacture of clothing as one of the clearest examples of international subcontracting. Through ethnographic work on borders, as we shall ﬁnd in the next section, it was later translated into appealing to the conditions of intensive female work, low-skilled and geographical separation. In the case of the EU, the geographical pairing corresponds to North African and Eastern European countries.