By Cooper D.J.
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Extra resources for Basic Lisp techniques
These symbols (a and b) are the local variables, and they are assigned to the respective values. The body consists of any number of expressions which come after the assignment section and before the closing parenthesis of the let statement. The expressions in this body are evaluated normally, and of course any expression can refer to the value of any of the local variables simply by referring directly to its symbol. If the body consists of more than one expression, the final return-value of the body is the return-value of its last expression.
Print puts a space and a newline after the item (effectively separating individual items with whitespace), and Prin1 outputs the item with no extra whitespace: CL-USER(29): (print ’hello) HELLO HELLO In the above example, you see the symbol HELLO appearing twice: the first time is the output actually being printed on the console, and the second is the normal return-value of the call to print being printed on the console by the read-eval-print loop. Print and Prin1 both print their output readably, meaning that CL’s read function will be able to read the data back in.
The same address in memory). Member takes two arguments: an item and a list. If the item is not in the list, it returns NIL. Otherwise, it returns the rest of the list, starting from the found element: CL-USER(7): (member ’dallas ’(boston san-francisco portland)) NIL CL-USER(8): (member ’san-francisco ’(boston san-francisco portland)) (SAN-FRANCISCO PORTLAND) As with length, we could define member using a function definition which is very close to the English description of what the function is supposed to do3 : (defun our-member (elem list) (if (null list) nil (if (eql elem (first list)) list (our-member elem (rest list))))) 3 The use of the “nested” if statement in this example, while functionally correct, is a violation of good CL style.