Download Basic and Applied Mutagenesis: With Special Reference to by Amir Muhammed (auth.), Amir Muhammed, R. C. von Borstel, PDF

By Amir Muhammed (auth.), Amir Muhammed, R. C. von Borstel, Dorothy Woslyng (eds.)

The objective of the editors of this quantity is to exploit simple and ap­ plied reports within the box of mutagenesis to technique an issue of especial challenge. the matter is that of using poisonous chemi­ cals, rather agricultural chemical compounds, in ever-increasing quan­ tities in these components of the realm that feed the main humans. Agri­ cultural chemical compounds which are in use in Pakistan are emphasised right here. those are a similar chemical compounds which are in use through the improve­ ing global, even if the amounts of the differing kinds which are used could range from nation to state, and from quarter to sector inside nations. a few those chemical substances can not be offered in Europe or within the usa, and it's always tough to iden­ tify a systematic cause as to why they're bought in any respect. it's ironic that poisonous chemical substances are used as a humanitarian gadget to rid the area of Pestilence and Famine -- of the Horsemen of the Apocalypse. If we don't want toxic chemical substances to turn into the 5th Horseman of the Apocalypse, then we needs to start now to spot and control the large-scale utilization of poisonous sub­ stances everywhere.

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Examples of these chemicals are the nitrogen and sulfur mustards, "alkyl sulfates, epoxides, and sulfones. DEAVEN Since 1775, when a correlation was drawn between exposure to soot and human cancer, a steady stream of information has been produced on the underlying causes of neoplastic transformation. This information has been used to develop a large battery of tests that can determine the carcinogenic potential of a given chemical. Of particular value are the short-term tests involving microbial systems or mammalian cells in culture (de Serres and Ashby, 1981).

Among these are several compounds which are resistant to natural degradation and can be widely distributed in water. Being relatively nonpolar, many of these substances tend to appear in water only in low concentrations, but are subject to accumulation into fatty tissue via drinking water or through the food chain. Some of these compounds are known to express acute or chronic toxicity, including mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Included in this group are several of the pesticides described in this volume by Sandhu et al.

1980) TOXINS IN THE HUMAN FOOD SYSTEM 25 the content of N-nitroso compounds in their products and, consequently, a large number of pesticides, shown in Table 2, now contain less than 1 pg/liter of N-nitroso contaminants. However, 150 to 600 pg/liter of various N-nitroso amines have been found·in pesticides packaged in metal containers in which sodium nitrite was used as a corrosion inhibitor. Moreover, as we have seen, many agricultural pesticides contain nitrosatable compounds. Pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables could be ingested accidentally by people or animals, and nitrosation could occur in human or animal stomachs where the concentration of nitrite produced by endogenous bacterial action in saliva, or taken in with food, is sufficiently high.

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