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By Dr Carlos Marichal

This publication emphasizes that the Spanish empire remained the 3rd most vital ecu country when it comes to financial source of revenue and naval strength, and primary in measurement of territorial empire, really as a result of its colonies in Spanish the United States. The Spanish crown was once concerned with 4 wars with nice Britain and wars with France through the many years 1760-1810. Colonial Mexico financed every one of these wars by means of remitting silver within the type of taxes and loans. The charges of the imperial wars have been so nice that they finally triggered the financial ruin of either the Spanish American colonies and of the monarchy itself.

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Additional info for Bankruptcy of Empire: Mexican Silver and the Wars Between Spain, Britain and France, 1760-1810

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Equally important, in 1767, Juli´an Arriaga, minister of the Indies, ordered a faithful but ambitious technocrat, Jos´e G´alvez, to travel to New Spain as royal envoy (Visitador General) with instructions to carry out a thorough report on the defense conditions and the fiscal administration of the viceroyalty. Not surprisingly, the Viceroy marquis de Cruillas was surprised by the G´alvez mission as he arrived with extraordinary military and political powers. 24 The innovations of O’Reilly and G´alvez proved to be models for the rest of Spanish America in the last decades of the eighteenth century.

Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 259–283. 37 Javier CuencaEsteban, “The British Balance of Payments, 1172–1820: India Transfers and War Finance,” Economic History Review, 54, 1 (2001), 58–86; by the same author, “India’s Contribution to the British Balance of Payments, 1757–1812,” unpublished paper in Session 106 of the XIV International Economic History Conference, Helsinki, 2006. 38 J. C. Riley, The Seven Years War and the Old Regime in France. P1: JZP 9780521879644c01 CUNY1040/Marichal 0 521 87964 7 August 23, 2007 13:51 1 Resurgence of the Spanish Empire: Bourbon Mexico as Submetropolis, 1763–1800 When the great explorer and scientist Alexander von Humboldt visited colonial Mexico in 1803, he was witness to one of the final and most brilliant periods in the history of the viceroyalty.

Jg. 6, H 4 (1980), 335–353. ˜ 1760– 41 Carlos Marichal, “Beneficios y costes fiscales del colonialismo: las remesas americana a Espana, 1814” Revista de Historia Econ´omica, x, 3 (1997), 475–505. 42 Under Phillip V (1726–1746), total disbursements of the branch of the royal treasury of Mexico City, known as “War” (Guerra), increased from 1 million pesos a year in the mid-1720s to over 3 million pesos by 1745. 3 million pesos a year, which represented over 60 percent of total disbursements of the Mexico City central treasury.

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