By Andrea Borini, Maria Valeria Savasi
This concise and useful ebook is the 1st of its sort to envision using assisted reproductive applied sciences (ART) on the subject of blood-borne infectious ailments: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). The e-book opens with a dialogue of the effect of those viruses on female and male fertility, through particular chapters of every of them, together with artwork with HIV and HCV serodiscordant (where both the male or lady is optimistic) and the detection and influence of HBV and HCV in human gametes and embryos. a major personality on laboratory defense whilst acting paintings with blood-borne viruses follows, and the e-book concludes with a dialogue of artwork in austere and resource-poor settings, the place those infections are usually dominant because of loss of therapy and entry to vaccines. Written and edited via a global array of specialists in reproductive drugs, Assisted Reproductive applied sciences and Infectious ailments explores questions, options, and similar concerns with the purpose of successfully supporting clinicians operating with serodiscordant wishing to have childrens.
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Additional resources for Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Management
Hum Reprod. 2005;20(4):1028–34. 112. Dulioust E, et al. Semen alterations in HIV-1 infected men. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(8):2112–8. 30 E. van Leeuwen 113. Dondero F, et al. Semen analysis in HIV seropositive men and in subjects at high risk for HIV infection. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(4):765–8. 114. Politch JA, et al. The effects of disease progression and zidovudine therapy on semen quality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seropositive men. Fertil Steril. 1994;61(5):922–8. 115. Moretti E, et al. Sperm ultrastructure and meiotic segregation in a group of patients with chronic hepatitis B and C.
Loss of HBeAg expression can also occur with mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) region that regulates the expression of both HBeAg and core protein . These mutations have been associated with fulminant hepatitis and severe chronic liver disease [15, 16]. However, fulminant hepatitis can occur in the absence of such mutations [17, 18]. Additional studies are needed to determine the pathogenic basis and clinical sequelae arising from the selection of these mutants . X Gene Mutations As the X ORF overlaps the BCP completely, promoter mutations can affect the amino acids sequence of the X protein.
It is speculated that this could be caused by oxidative stress due to viral infections or chromosomal instability . However, controls were not always matched, and in one study, for instance, the HBV group consisted of more men with male or unexplained infertility . Conflicting results were reported in the outcomes of IVF treatments in couples with at least one HBV-seropositive partner. In one study, lower implantation and pregnancy rates were observed in HBV-positive individuals compared with healthy controls .