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Example text

At the point of reflection then the ray suffers an azimuthal deviation which is easily visible when we project the ray onto the horizontal plane 270 260 FIG. 7. Determination of the direction of the rays after reflection by means of a Wulff net. 1—direction of incident rays with azimuths 0-90° at every 10°; 2—direction of reflected rays; 3—direction of the normal to the interface at the point of incidence of the corresponding ray. FIG. 8. Construction for radial surfaces 10°, 13°, 15°, 17°, 20°, 22°, 25°, 30°, 35°, 40° on the ob»^mtion plane j 6—critic^ contour j 7~lines of equal azimuths.

I. GAL'PERIN et al, is now 305° and the angle with the vertical 39°. In order to make the follow­ ing discussion clear we show the ray under consideration and the structure contours of the reflecting interface (Fig. 13) on the plan (constructions for all the rays are usually shown on one drawing). The point a lies in the plane of the inclined interface and has a depth of 356 m. Knowing the angle the ray makes with the vertical (39°) we calculate the amount of projection of the ray onto the observation plane during its penetration at some depth Ah (in our case zlÄ = 50 m) as Ax =^ 50 tan 39°.

P + QIVI^P (17) AQ. p > ^ I , P be sUghtly greater than for media where VQ^ < p, provided A is the same. This ratio increases as A increases and as γ decreases but A does not alter. Multi-layered Media Of the many problems connected with the intensity of reflected waves excited in multi-layered media, we shall here consider only the following: (a) the influence of the values of transverse velocity on the intensity of reflected waves; REFRACTED AND REFLECTED LONGITUDINAL WAVES 41 (b) the influence of the overall depth of the reflecting boundary and the ratio between the thicknesses of the different layers on the intensity of re­ flected waves over a shot point; (c) comparison of the intensities of single and double echoes above a shot point.

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