By Joseph F. Albright
Well known immunogerontologists assessment the key gains and features of the immune process which are probably, or recognized, to be considerably altered by means of getting older, and supply insightful analyses of the results for these getting older matters who needs to deal with an infection. themes of exact curiosity comprise the demographics and theories of immunosenescence, the slow breakdown of resistance to an infection within the elderly, and the consequences of getting older on chosen mechanisms of either innate and adaptive immunity to infections. The Albrights additionally clarify how advances can be made in figuring out the fundamental biology, the more recent tools of therapy and prevention, and the review of such provocative rules as lifespan extension and dietary intervention to hold up immunosenescence.
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Additional info for Aging, Immunity, and Infection (Infectious Disease)
5% with influenza A or B, and 7% with respiratory syncytial virus, and the remainder with other agents. In the case of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the elderly, two independent studies, separated by an interval of 12 yr, gave very similar results. One study was performed in Sweden in 1986 on a group of 1966 subjects having a mean Aging and Altered Resistance to Infection 21 Table 2-2 Pathogens Found Frequently in Elderly Subjects with Respiratory or Urinary Tract Infections Organ system Respiratory tract (upper and lower) Pathogen found frequently Bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae Hemophilus influenza Legionella pneumophila Chlamidia pneumoniae Viruses Rhinoviruses Coronaviruses Influenza Respiratory syncytial Urinary tract Bacteria Escherichia coli Proteus Klebsiella Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enterococci age of 70 years (4).
A host that is quickly ravaged is unsuitable for the pathogen, which has the single objective of perpetuating itself. Upon infection, a struggle develops between host and pathogen with the advantage going first to one adversary and then to the other. Microbial pathogens are, of course, capable of much more rapid variation than are their hosts. Therefore, it is in the pathogen’s self-interest to utilize sparingly the weapons of virulence in its arsenal so that there is opportunity to reproduce and allow progeny to move on to new hosts.
The bacteria replicate in the cytoplasm and spread from cell to cell often without becoming extracellular. Thus, they become sheltered from the humoral immune response of the host. Immune defense against L. monocytogenes is cell mediated and involves both activated phagocytic cells, especially IFN-γactivated macrophages, and cytotoxic T cells (see Chapters 3 and 4). Foci of infection may be seen in various organs, such as the liver and spleen where they appear as granulomas. One of the early reports that aged animals are more susceptible to infections than young adults, was a study of L.