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By George F. Chadwick

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If, however, we have a situation in which the η possible outcomes are not all equally likely, we can represent these outcomes by probabilities: Pi>p2> . · · ,pn, and in this case the amount of information generated, 54 A Systems View of Planning H(x) must be : lo — Pi l°gPi —P* g / > 2 . . , are less than unity, their logarithms are negative, so that H(x) is positive). , and is clearly a measure of information, for information, according to both Weiner and Shannon, is "that which removes u n c e r t a i n t y a n d we are concerned here with the measurement of the removal of uncertainty.

H. Murrell : Ergonomics : Man in his Working Environment, Chapman and Hall, 1965. Chapter Six: Man as a System Component p. 106. ) REFERENCES ASHBY, W . Ross ( 1 9 6 4 ) An Introduction to Cybernetics, University Paperbacks, Methuen. , N e w York. BEER, STAFFORD ( 1 9 6 6 ) Decision and Control, John Wiley. G R I F F I T H , J. S. ( 1 9 6 6 ) A Comparison of Brains and Computers. Paper read to the British Association Conference. LASHLEY, K . S. ( 1 9 5 1 ) Cerebral Mechanisms in Behaviour, John Wiley & Sons.

C H I L D E , V. G O R D O N ( 1 9 6 3 ) Social Evolution, Fontana Collins. Physical Change and Human Ecology 21 C I P O L L A , CARLO M . ( 1 9 6 2 ) The Economic History of World Population, Penguin Books. C L A P H A M , W. B. , London. E H R L I C H , P A U L R. and A N N E H . ( 1 9 7 2 ) Popidation, Resources, Environment : Issues in Human Ecology, W. H . , Reading, England. M E I E R , RICHARD L. ( 1 9 6 2 ) A Communications Theory of Urban Growth, M . I . T . Press. O D U M , H O W A R D T .

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