Download A Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond by Mark Levene BSc, PhD, George Loizou BA, PhD (auth.) PDF

By Mark Levene BSc, PhD, George Loizou BA, PhD (auth.)

Database concept is now in a mature kingdom, and this e-book addresses vital extensions of the relational database version akin to deductive, temporal and object-oriented databases. It offers an outline of database modelling with the Entity-Relationship (ER) version and the relational version supplying the pivot on which the cloth revolves. the most physique of the booklet makes a speciality of the first achievements of relational database thought, together with question languages, integrity constraints, database layout, comput capable queries and concurrency regulate. an important extensions of the relational version are lined in separate chapters. This e-book should be priceless to 3rd yr machine technology undergraduates and postgraduates learning database conception, and also will be of curiosity to researchers and database practitioners who wish to understand extra concerning the rules underlying relational dat abase administration structures and the issues that confront database researchers.

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E. e. e. the countably infinite set of all finite sequences of symbols from "E, by"E*. A set of strings over "E, namely any subset of"E*, is called a language. Since languages are sets, they can be combined via the set operations of union, intersection and difference. If L is a language, then L, the complement of L, is given by "E* - L. 9. Background Material I Input tape . 10 Adeterministic finite automaton we can define the concatenation of two languages over I;, that is, if Ll> L2 are languages over I; then their concatenation is L = L\ 0 L2, or simply L\L2, defined by L = {w I w =x 0 y, or simply w = xy, for some x E L\ and y E L2}, where 0 stands for the concatenation of strings x and y, namely the leading part of w comes from x and the trailing part from y.

IYI if and only if there is a 1-1 function from X to Y. We postulate the existence of a "cardinality" function IXI defined for all sets satisfying (1) and (2). Let w be the set of natural numbers, namely w = {O, 1, 2,3 , . }. Then an infinite set X is countable if it can be put into 1-1 correspondence with w, and uncountable otherwise. Given a set S, the size ofS, denoted by IISII, is the cardinality of some standard string encoding of S. Details about the meaning of "standard" can be found in [GJ79].

9. Background Material By the phrase "a family (Ail of subsets of E" we shall understand a function A on some set f of indices into P(E). We can now define the union ahd intersection of a family by U {Ail i E f} and n {Ai liE l}. Correspondingly, the Cartesian product of a family is given by X {Ai liE f}. IE IXi or Xl XX2 X···xX n , where f is the index set {I , 2, . , n}. We writef(xl , X2 , ... , xn) to meanf(

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